Resources responding to John Walton’s “Lost World” thesis.

1) A quick summary of the issues:

Cox, Gavin (2019). The Lost World of Walton: Why John Walton’s Lost World books are a lost cause.


2) Response to the material/functional hypothesis:

Leithart, Peter (2014). Genesis 1 in Ancient Perspective?

3) Response to material/function, ANE worldview, temple-building, and other issues:

Weeks, Noel K. (2016). The Bible and The “Universal” Ancient World: A Critique of John Walton.  Westminster Theological Journal 78 (2016): 1-28.


Collins, C. John (2009). Review of Walton, Lost World of Genesis 1.  Reformed Academic, 26 November 2009.


4) Highlighting problems with the goals of Walton’s approach:

Purifoy, Jr., Thomas. The Gnostic World of John Walton.


Bloom, John A. (2015). The Lost World of John Walton; a book review of The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins Debate.  Christian Research Journal 38:3.


               Amended article here:  The Lost World of John Walton.

5) Brief survey of ANE creation accounts in contrast to Genesis:

Bloom, John A. and Collins, C. John (2012).  Creation Accounts and Ancient Near Eastern Religions.  Christian Research Journal 35:1.


6) Response to Walton’s deconstruction of Old and New Testament laws and ethics:

Miller, Joseph R. (2021).  Jesus in the Torah.  Global Journal of Classic Theology 17:3.



Books for those who want to go deeper:

The full titles give a good sense of the coverage:

Oswalt, John W. (2009).  The Bible among the Myths: Unique Revelation or Just Ancient Literature?  Zondervan.

Collins, C. John (2011).  Did Adam and Eve Really Exist?: Who They Were and Why You Should Care.  Crossway.

The following has good summaries, and good interaction between Walton and Collins:

Caneday, Ardel B., et al (2013).  Four Views on the Historical Adam.  Zondervan.

The best accessible introduction to Genesis and Creation that I’m aware of (includes some response to Walton):

Lennox, John C. (2011).  Seven Days that Divide the World: The Beginning According to Genesis and Science.  Zondervan.